What is cancer & oncology?

Cancer is a disease that occurs when cells in the body grow in an abnormal, uncontrolled way. There are over 100 different types of cancer.

Bowen Icon Cancer Centre treats the full breadth of adult cancers and blood disorders, providing care every step of the way.

What is cancer?

The human body is made up of billions of cells, which in a healthy body are usually turning over slowly, in an organised way. Cancer is the term we use for a disease that occurs when these cells grow in an abnormal and uncontrolled way.

Cancer may also affect blood cells, causing blood cancers such as leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma. These blood cancers also cause normal blood cell production to be reduced due to the uncontrolled growth of the abnormal (malignant) cells in the bone marrow.

Over time, the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells usually becomes too much for the body to cope with, or will spread to a part of the body that is essential for life.

What is oncology?

Oncology is the branch of medicine that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment and research of cancer. This includes medical oncology, radiation oncology, haematology and surgical oncology.

What is an oncologist?

An oncologist is a doctor that specialises in treating cancer. Oncologists support patients from diagnosis, through treatment and into survivorship as part of a multidisciplinary team. While some oncologists specialise in certain types of cancer (e.g. breast cancer), others treat a wide range of different cancer types. Oncologists also conduct research into cancer to improve our understanding of the disease and its treatment.

Types of oncologists

There are four main types of oncologists:


doctors who specialise in treating cancers affecting the blood/bone marrow (e.g. leukaemia) and lymphatic system (i.e. lymphoma), and often perform bone marrow transplants

Medical oncologists

doctors who specialise in diagnosing and treating solid tumours (e.g. cancerous tumours in the lung, breast or bowel) with the use of chemotherapy drugs, immunotherapy and hormone therapies

Radiation oncologists

doctors who specialise in treating cancer using radiation therapy

Surgical oncologists

doctors who specialise in removing cancerous tissue through surgery

Our oncologists

Cancer treatments

Treatments for cancer include:

For further information on cancer treatments offered at Icon, click here.

Resources to help you and your loved ones navigate a cancer diagnosis

If you or a loved one has been diagnosed with cancer, it is normal to feel overwhelmed. Sometimes it can be difficult to remember all the details, or time consuming and stressful to find the additional information you’re looking for.

Support services

A list of credible support agencies to help you through all stages of your cancer journey.
Learn more

Family and whanāu

We know that a cancer diagnosis impacts the whole family. Learn where to find support while caring for a loved one.
Learn more

Care at Icon

Our cancer care team are here to support you with compassion, knowledge and hope.
Learn more


Contact us

  • 04 896 0200
  • Level B3, Bowen Specialist Medical Centre 98 Churchill Drive Crofton Downs Wellington 6035